The Prehistoric World
Man's Origins - 1885 beliefsby: E.A. Allen Instant & Worldwide FREE Shipping
Difficulties of the subject--Lesson to be learned--The pursuit of knowledge--Recent
advances--Prehistoric past of the Old World--Of the New--Of Mexico and the South--The Isles of the
Pacific--Similar nature of the relics--The wonders of the present age--History of popular opinion on this
subject-- The teachings of the Bible--Nature of the evidence of man's antiquity--The steps leading up to
this belief--Geology-- Astronomy--Unfolding of life--Nature of our inquiry.
EARLY GEOLOGICAL PERIODS.
Necessity of a general acquaintance with the outlines of Geology--A time in which no life was possible on
the globe-- Length of this period--History of life commences at the close of this period--On the formation
of rocks--The record imperfect-- The three great periods in animal life on the globe--Paleozoic
Age--Animal and vegetable life of this period--Ideal scenes in this period--The Mesozoic Age--Animal
and vegetable life of this period--Advance noted--Abundance of reptilian life--First appearance of
birds--Nature's methods of work--the Cenozoic Age Geological outline--Sketch of the Eocene Age--Of
the Miocene Age--What is sufficient proof of the presence of man-- Discussion on the Thenay flints--The
Pliocene Age--Animal and vegetable life of this age--Was man present during this age?-- Discussion of
this subject--Summing up of the evidence-- Conclusion.
MEN OF THE RIVER DRIFT.
Beginning of the Glacial Age--Interglacial Age--Man living in Europe during this age--Map of
Europe--Proof of former elevation of land--The animals living in Europe during this age --Conclusions
drawn from these different animals--The vegetation of this period--Different climatic conditions of Europe
during the Glacial Age--Proofs of the Glacial Age--Extent of Glacial Ice--Evidence of warm Interglacial
Age--The primitive state of man--Early English civilization--Views of Horace--Primitive man destitute of
metals--Order in which different materials were used by man for weapons--Evidence from the River
Somme--History of Boucher De Perthes's investigations. Discussion of the subject--Antiquity of these
remains--Improvement during the Paleolithic Age--Description of the flint implements--Other countries
where these implements are found--What race of men were these tribes--The Canstadt race--Mr.
Dawkins's views--When did they first appear in Europe? The authorities on this question--Conclusion.
Other sources of information--History of cave explorations--The formation of caves--Exploration in Kent's
Cavern--Evidence of two different races--The higher culture of the later race-- Evidence of prolonged
time--Exploration of Robin Hood Cave--Explorations in Valley of the River Meuse--M. Dupont's
conclusions--Explorations in the Valley of the Dordogne--The station at Schussenreid--Cave-men not
found south of the Alps-- Habitations of the Cave-men--Cave-men were hunters--methods of
cooking--Destitute of the potter's art--Their weapons--Clothing --Their skill in drawing--Evidence of a
government--Of a religious belief--Race of the Cave-men--Distinet from the Men of the Drift--Probable
connection with the Eskimos.
ANTIQUITY OF THE PALEOLITHIC AGE.
Interest in the Antiquity of man--Connected with the Glacial Age--The subject difficult--Proofs of a
Glacial Age--State of Greenland to-day--The Terminal Moraine--Appearance of the North
Atlantic--Interglacial Age--Causes of the Glacial Age--Croll's Theory--Geographical causes--The two
theories not antagonistic-- The date of the Glacial Age--Probable length of the Paleolithic Age--Time
Since the close of the Glacial Age--Summary of results.
THE NEOLITHIC AGE IN EUROPE.
Close of the first cycle--Neolithic culture connected with the present--No links between the two
ages--Long lapse of time between the two ages--Swiss lake villages--This form of villages widely
scattered--Irish cranogs--Fortified villages--Implements and weapons of Neolithic times--Possessed of
pottery--Neolithic agriculture--Possessed of domestic animals--Danish shell-heaps-- Importance of
flint--The art of navigation--Neolithic clothing-- Their mode of burial--The question of race--Possible
remnants-- Connection with the Turanian race--Arrival of the Celts.
THE BRONZE AGE IN EUROPE.
Races of Men, like Individuals--Gradual change of Neolithic Age to that of Bronze--The Aryan
family--First Aryans Neolithic-- Origin of Bronze--How Great discoveries are made--Gold the first
metal--Copper abundant--No Copper Age--The discovery of Tin-- Explanation of an Alloy--Bronze,
wherever found, the same composition--What is meant by the Bronze Age--Knowledge in other
directions--Gradual Growth of Culture--Three Centers of Bronze production--Habitations during the
Bronze Age--The Bronze Ax-- Implements of Bronze--Personal ornaments--Ornaments not always made
of Bronze--Advance in Arts of living--Advance in Agriculture--Warlike Weapons--How they worked
Bronze--Advance in Government--Trade in the Bronze Age--Religion of the Bronze Age --Symbolical
figures--Temples of the Bronze Age--Stonehenge.
Chapter IV. 9
THE IRON AGE IN EUROPE. Bronze not the best metal--Difficulties attending the discovery of
Iron--Probable steps in this discovery--Where this discovery was first made--Known in Ancient
Egypt--How this knowledge would spread--Iron would not drive out Bronze--The primitive Iron-
worker--The advance in government--Pottery and ornaments of the Iron Age--Weapons of early Iron
Age--The battle-field of Tilfenau--Trade of early Iron Age--Invention of Money--Invention of
Alphabetic Writing--Invasion of the Germanic Tribes--The cause of the Dark Ages--Connection of these
three ages-- Necessity of believing in an Extended Past--Attempts to determine the same--Tiniere
Delta--Lake Bienne--British Fen-lands--Maximum and Minimum Data--Mr. Geikie's conclusions-- The
Isolation of the paleolithic Age.
EARLY MAN IN AMERICA.
Conflicting accounts of the American Aborigines--Recent discoveries--Climate of California in Tertiary
Times--Geological changes near its close--Description of Table Mountain--Results of the discoveries
there--The Calaveras skull--Other relics-- Discussion of the question--Early Californians Neolithic--
Explanation of this--Date of the Pliocene Age--Other discoveries bearing on the Antiquity of man--Dr.
Koch's discovery-- Discoveries in the Loess of Nebraska--In Greene County, Ill.-- In
Georgia--Difficulties in detecting a Paleolithic Age in this country--Dr. Abbott's discoveries--Paleolithic
Implements of the Delaware--Age of the deposits--The race of Paleolithic man-- Ancestors of the
Eskimos--Comparison of Paleolithic Age in this country with that in Europe--Eskimos one of the oldest
races in the World.
THE MOUND BUILDERS.
Meaning of "Mound Builders"--Location of Mound Building tribes-- All Mounds not the work of
men--Altar Mounds--Objects found on the Altars--Altar Mounds possibly burial Mounds--Burial
Mounds--Mounds not the only Cemeteries of these tribes--Terraced Mounds--Cahokia Mound--Historical
notice of a group of Mounds-- The Etowal group--Signal Mounds--Effigy Mounds--How they
represented diiterent animals--Explanation of the Effigy Mounds --Effigy Mounds in other
localities--Inclosures of the Scioto Valley--At Newark, Ohio--At Marietta, Ohio--Graded Ways--
Fortified Inclosures--Ft. Ancient, Ohio--Inclosures of Northern Ohio--Works of unknown
import--Ancient Canals in Missouri-- Implements and Weapons of Stone--Their knowledge of Copper--
Ancient mining--Ornamental pipes--Their knowledge of pottery-- Of Agriculture--Government and
Religion--Hard to distinguish them from the Indians.
THE PUEBLO COUNTRY.
Description of the Pueblo Country--Historical outline-- Description of Zuni--Definition of a Pueblo--Old
Zuni-- Inscription Rock--Pueblo of Jemez--Historical notice of Pecos --Description of the Moqui
tribes--The Estufa--Description of the San Juan country--Aztec Springs--In the Canyon of the
McElmo--The Ruins on the Rio Mancos--On Hovenweep Creek-- Description of a Cliff-house--Cliff
Town--Cave Houses--Ruins on the San Juan--Cave Town--The Significance of Cliff-houses-- Moqui
traditions--Ruins in Northern New Mexico--Ruins in the Chaco Canyon--Pueblo Bonito--Ruins in
South-western Arizona-- The Rio Verde Valley--Casa Grande--Ruins on the Gila--Culture of the Pueblo
Tribes--Their Pottery--Superiority of the Ancient pottery--Conclusion.
THE PREHISTORIC AMERICANS.
Different views on this Subject--Modern System of Government-- Ancient System of Government--Tribal
Government universal in North America--The Indians not Wandering Nomads--Indian houses Communal
in character--Indian Methods of Defense--Mandan Villages--Indians sometimes erected
Mounds--Probable Government of the Mound Builders--Traditions of the Mound Builders among the
Iroquois--Among the Delawares--Probable fate of the Mound Builders--The Natchez Indians possibly a
remnant of the Mound Builders--Their early Traditions--Lines of resemblance between the Pueblo Tribes
and the Mound Builders--The origin of the Indians--America Inhabited by the Indians from a very early
time--Classification of the Indian Tribes--Antiquity of the Indian Tribes.
THE NAHUA TRIBES.
Early Spanish discoveries in Mexico--The Nahua tribes defined-- Climate of Mexico--The Valley of
Anahuac--Ruins at Tezcuco--The Hill of Tezcocingo--Ruins at Teotihuacan--Ancient Tulla--Ruins in
the Province of Querataro--Casa Grandes in Chihuahua--Ancient remains in Sinaloa--Fortified Hill of
Quemada--The Pyramid of Cholula--Fortified Hill at Xochicalco--Its probable use--Ruins at Monte
Alban--Ancient remains at Mitla--Mr. Bandelier's investigations--Traditions in regard to Mitla--Ruins
along the Panuco River--Ruins in Vera Cruz--Pyramid of Papantla--Tusapan-- Character of Nahua Ruins.
THE MAYA TRIBES.
The geographical location of the Maya tribes--Description of Copan--Statue at Copan--Altar at
Copan--Ruins at Quiriga-- Patinamit--Utatlan--Description of Palenque--The Palace at Palenque--The
Temple of the Three Inscriptions--Temple of the Beau-relief--Temple of the Cross--Temple of the
Sun--Maler's Temple of the Cross--Significance of the Palenque crosses-- Statue at Palenque--Other ruins
in Tobasco and Chiapas--Ruins in Yucatan--Uxmal--The Governor's House--The Nunnery--Room in
Nunnery--The Sculptured Facades--Temple at Uxmal--Kabah--Zayi--
Labna--Labphak--Chichen-Itza--The Nunnery--The Castillo--The Gymnasium--M. Le Plongon's
researches--The tradition of the Three Brothers--Chaac-Mal--Antiquity of Chichen-Itza.
THE CULTURE OF THE CIVILIZED TRIBES.
Different views on this question--Reasons for the same--Their architecture--Different styles of
houses--The communal house--The teepan--The teocalli--State of society indicated by this
architecture--The gens among the Mexicans--The phratry among the Mexicans--The tribe--The powers
and duties of the council--The head chiefs of the tribe--The duties of the "Chief-of-men"--The mistake of
the Spaniards--The Confederacy-- The idea of property among the Mexicans--The ownership of land--
Their laws--Enforcement of the laws--Outline of the growth of the Mexicans in power--Their tribute
system--How collected-- Their system of trade--Slight knowledge of metallurgy--Religion
Chapter XII. 11
--Quetzalcohuatl--Huitzilopochtli--Mexican priesthood-- Human sacrifice--The system of
Numeration--The calendar system-- The Calendar Stone--Picture-writing--Landa Alphabet-- Historical
First knowledge of Peru--Expeditions of Pizarro--Geography of Peru--But a small part of it
inhabitable--The tribes of ancient Peru--How classified--Sources of our knowledge of Peru-- Garcillaso
De La Vega--Origin of Peruvian civilization--The Bolson of Cuzco--Historical outline--Their
culture--Divided into phratries and gentes--Government--Efforts to unite the various tribes--Their system
of colonies--The roads of the Incas--The ruins of Chimu--The arts of the Chimu people--The manufacture
of Pottery--Excavation at Ancon--Ruins in the Huatica Valley--The construction of a Huaca--The ruins at
Pachacamac--The Valley of the Canete--The Chincha Islands--Tiahuanuco--Carved gateway--The
Island of Titicaca--Chulpas--Aboriginal Cuzco--Temple of the Sun--The Fortress--General remarks.
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