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PREHISTORIC WORLD - Man's Origins - 1885 beliefs
PREHISTORIC WORLD - Man's Origins - 1885 beliefs
PREHISTORIC WORLD - Man's Origins - 1885 beliefs
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The Prehistoric World 



Man's Origins - 1885 beliefs

by: E.A. Allen

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Chapter I.


Difficulties of the subject--Lesson to be learned--The pursuit of knowledge--Recent

advances--Prehistoric past of the Old World--Of the New--Of Mexico and the South--The Isles of the

Pacific--Similar nature of the relics--The wonders of the present age--History of popular opinion on this

subject-- The teachings of the Bible--Nature of the evidence of man's antiquity--The steps leading up to

this belief--Geology-- Astronomy--Unfolding of life--Nature of our inquiry.

Chapter II.


Necessity of a general acquaintance with the outlines of Geology--A time in which no life was possible on

the globe-- Length of this period--History of life commences at the close of this period--On the formation

of rocks--The record imperfect-- The three great periods in animal life on the globe--Paleozoic

Age--Animal and vegetable life of this period--Ideal scenes in this period--The Mesozoic Age--Animal

and vegetable life of this period--Advance noted--Abundance of reptilian life--First appearance of

birds--Nature's methods of work--the Cenozoic Age Geological outline--Sketch of the Eocene Age--Of

the Miocene Age--What is sufficient proof of the presence of man-- Discussion on the Thenay flints--The

Pliocene Age--Animal and vegetable life of this age--Was man present during this age?-- Discussion of

this subject--Summing up of the evidence-- Conclusion.

Chapter III.


Beginning of the Glacial Age--Interglacial Age--Man living in Europe during this age--Map of

Europe--Proof of former elevation of land--The animals living in Europe during this age --Conclusions

drawn from these different animals--The vegetation of this period--Different climatic conditions of Europe

during the Glacial Age--Proofs of the Glacial Age--Extent of Glacial Ice--Evidence of warm Interglacial

Age--The primitive state of man--Early English civilization--Views of Horace--Primitive man destitute of

metals--Order in which different materials were used by man for weapons--Evidence from the River

Somme--History of Boucher De Perthes's investigations. Discussion of the subject--Antiquity of these

remains--Improvement during the Paleolithic Age--Description of the flint implements--Other countries

where these implements are found--What race of men were these tribes--The Canstadt race--Mr.

Dawkins's views--When did they first appear in Europe? The authorities on this question--Conclusion.

Chapter IV.


Other sources of information--History of cave explorations--The formation of caves--Exploration in Kent's

Cavern--Evidence of two different races--The higher culture of the later race-- Evidence of prolonged

time--Exploration of Robin Hood Cave--Explorations in Valley of the River Meuse--M. Dupont's

conclusions--Explorations in the Valley of the Dordogne--The station at Schussenreid--Cave-men not

found south of the Alps-- Habitations of the Cave-men--Cave-men were hunters--methods of

cooking--Destitute of the potter's art--Their weapons--Clothing --Their skill in drawing--Evidence of a

government--Of a religious belief--Race of the Cave-men--Distinet from the Men of the Drift--Probable

connection with the Eskimos.

Chapter V.


Interest in the Antiquity of man--Connected with the Glacial Age--The subject difficult--Proofs of a

Glacial Age--State of Greenland to-day--The Terminal Moraine--Appearance of the North

Atlantic--Interglacial Age--Causes of the Glacial Age--Croll's Theory--Geographical causes--The two

theories not antagonistic-- The date of the Glacial Age--Probable length of the Paleolithic Age--Time

Since the close of the Glacial Age--Summary of results.

Chapter VI.


Close of the first cycle--Neolithic culture connected with the present--No links between the two

ages--Long lapse of time between the two ages--Swiss lake villages--This form of villages widely

scattered--Irish cranogs--Fortified villages--Implements and weapons of Neolithic times--Possessed of

pottery--Neolithic agriculture--Possessed of domestic animals--Danish shell-heaps-- Importance of

flint--The art of navigation--Neolithic clothing-- Their mode of burial--The question of race--Possible

remnants-- Connection with the Turanian race--Arrival of the Celts.

Chapter VII.


Races of Men, like Individuals--Gradual change of Neolithic Age to that of Bronze--The Aryan

family--First Aryans Neolithic-- Origin of Bronze--How Great discoveries are made--Gold the first

metal--Copper abundant--No Copper Age--The discovery of Tin-- Explanation of an Alloy--Bronze,

wherever found, the same composition--What is meant by the Bronze Age--Knowledge in other

directions--Gradual Growth of Culture--Three Centers of Bronze production--Habitations during the

Bronze Age--The Bronze Ax-- Implements of Bronze--Personal ornaments--Ornaments not always made

of Bronze--Advance in Arts of living--Advance in Agriculture--Warlike Weapons--How they worked

Bronze--Advance in Government--Trade in the Bronze Age--Religion of the Bronze Age --Symbolical

figures--Temples of the Bronze Age--Stonehenge.

Chapter IV. 9

Chapter VIII.

THE IRON AGE IN EUROPE. Bronze not the best metal--Difficulties attending the discovery of

Iron--Probable steps in this discovery--Where this discovery was first made--Known in Ancient

Egypt--How this knowledge would spread--Iron would not drive out Bronze--The primitive Iron-

worker--The advance in government--Pottery and ornaments of the Iron Age--Weapons of early Iron

Age--The battle-field of Tilfenau--Trade of early Iron Age--Invention of Money--Invention of

Alphabetic Writing--Invasion of the Germanic Tribes--The cause of the Dark Ages--Connection of these

three ages-- Necessity of believing in an Extended Past--Attempts to determine the same--Tiniere

Delta--Lake Bienne--British Fen-lands--Maximum and Minimum Data--Mr. Geikie's conclusions-- The

Isolation of the paleolithic Age.

Chapter IX.


Conflicting accounts of the American Aborigines--Recent discoveries--Climate of California in Tertiary

Times--Geological changes near its close--Description of Table Mountain--Results of the discoveries

there--The Calaveras skull--Other relics-- Discussion of the question--Early Californians Neolithic--

Explanation of this--Date of the Pliocene Age--Other discoveries bearing on the Antiquity of man--Dr.

Koch's discovery-- Discoveries in the Loess of Nebraska--In Greene County, Ill.-- In

Georgia--Difficulties in detecting a Paleolithic Age in this country--Dr. Abbott's discoveries--Paleolithic

Implements of the Delaware--Age of the deposits--The race of Paleolithic man-- Ancestors of the

Eskimos--Comparison of Paleolithic Age in this country with that in Europe--Eskimos one of the oldest

races in the World.

Chapter X.


Meaning of "Mound Builders"--Location of Mound Building tribes-- All Mounds not the work of

men--Altar Mounds--Objects found on the Altars--Altar Mounds possibly burial Mounds--Burial

Mounds--Mounds not the only Cemeteries of these tribes--Terraced Mounds--Cahokia Mound--Historical

notice of a group of Mounds-- The Etowal group--Signal Mounds--Effigy Mounds--How they

represented diiterent animals--Explanation of the Effigy Mounds --Effigy Mounds in other

localities--Inclosures of the Scioto Valley--At Newark, Ohio--At Marietta, Ohio--Graded Ways--

Fortified Inclosures--Ft. Ancient, Ohio--Inclosures of Northern Ohio--Works of unknown

import--Ancient Canals in Missouri-- Implements and Weapons of Stone--Their knowledge of Copper--

Ancient mining--Ornamental pipes--Their knowledge of pottery-- Of Agriculture--Government and

Religion--Hard to distinguish them from the Indians.

Chapter XI.


Description of the Pueblo Country--Historical outline-- Description of Zuni--Definition of a Pueblo--Old

Zuni-- Inscription Rock--Pueblo of Jemez--Historical notice of Pecos --Description of the Moqui

tribes--The Estufa--Description of the San Juan country--Aztec Springs--In the Canyon of the

McElmo--The Ruins on the Rio Mancos--On Hovenweep Creek-- Description of a Cliff-house--Cliff

Town--Cave Houses--Ruins on the San Juan--Cave Town--The Significance of Cliff-houses-- Moqui

traditions--Ruins in Northern New Mexico--Ruins in the Chaco Canyon--Pueblo Bonito--Ruins in

South-western Arizona-- The Rio Verde Valley--Casa Grande--Ruins on the Gila--Culture of the Pueblo

Tribes--Their Pottery--Superiority of the Ancient pottery--Conclusion.

Chapter XII.


Different views on this Subject--Modern System of Government-- Ancient System of Government--Tribal

Government universal in North America--The Indians not Wandering Nomads--Indian houses Communal

in character--Indian Methods of Defense--Mandan Villages--Indians sometimes erected

Mounds--Probable Government of the Mound Builders--Traditions of the Mound Builders among the

Iroquois--Among the Delawares--Probable fate of the Mound Builders--The Natchez Indians possibly a

remnant of the Mound Builders--Their early Traditions--Lines of resemblance between the Pueblo Tribes

and the Mound Builders--The origin of the Indians--America Inhabited by the Indians from a very early

time--Classification of the Indian Tribes--Antiquity of the Indian Tribes.

Chapter XIII.


Early Spanish discoveries in Mexico--The Nahua tribes defined-- Climate of Mexico--The Valley of

Anahuac--Ruins at Tezcuco--The Hill of Tezcocingo--Ruins at Teotihuacan--Ancient Tulla--Ruins in

the Province of Querataro--Casa Grandes in Chihuahua--Ancient remains in Sinaloa--Fortified Hill of

Quemada--The Pyramid of Cholula--Fortified Hill at Xochicalco--Its probable use--Ruins at Monte

Alban--Ancient remains at Mitla--Mr. Bandelier's investigations--Traditions in regard to Mitla--Ruins

along the Panuco River--Ruins in Vera Cruz--Pyramid of Papantla--Tusapan-- Character of Nahua Ruins.

Chapter XIV.


The geographical location of the Maya tribes--Description of Copan--Statue at Copan--Altar at

Copan--Ruins at Quiriga-- Patinamit--Utatlan--Description of Palenque--The Palace at Palenque--The

Temple of the Three Inscriptions--Temple of the Beau-relief--Temple of the Cross--Temple of the

Sun--Maler's Temple of the Cross--Significance of the Palenque crosses-- Statue at Palenque--Other ruins

in Tobasco and Chiapas--Ruins in Yucatan--Uxmal--The Governor's House--The Nunnery--Room in

Nunnery--The Sculptured Facades--Temple at Uxmal--Kabah--Zayi--

Labna--Labphak--Chichen-Itza--The Nunnery--The Castillo--The Gymnasium--M. Le Plongon's

researches--The tradition of the Three Brothers--Chaac-Mal--Antiquity of Chichen-Itza.

Chapter XV.


Different views on this question--Reasons for the same--Their architecture--Different styles of

houses--The communal house--The teepan--The teocalli--State of society indicated by this

architecture--The gens among the Mexicans--The phratry among the Mexicans--The tribe--The powers

and duties of the council--The head chiefs of the tribe--The duties of the "Chief-of-men"--The mistake of

the Spaniards--The Confederacy-- The idea of property among the Mexicans--The ownership of land--

Their laws--Enforcement of the laws--Outline of the growth of the Mexicans in power--Their tribute

system--How collected-- Their system of trade--Slight knowledge of metallurgy--Religion

Chapter XII. 11

--Quetzalcohuatl--Huitzilopochtli--Mexican priesthood-- Human sacrifice--The system of

Numeration--The calendar system-- The Calendar Stone--Picture-writing--Landa Alphabet-- Historical


Chapter XVI.


First knowledge of Peru--Expeditions of Pizarro--Geography of Peru--But a small part of it

inhabitable--The tribes of ancient Peru--How classified--Sources of our knowledge of Peru-- Garcillaso

De La Vega--Origin of Peruvian civilization--The Bolson of Cuzco--Historical outline--Their

culture--Divided into phratries and gentes--Government--Efforts to unite the various tribes--Their system

of colonies--The roads of the Incas--The ruins of Chimu--The arts of the Chimu people--The manufacture

of Pottery--Excavation at Ancon--Ruins in the Huatica Valley--The construction of a Huaca--The ruins at

Pachacamac--The Valley of the Canete--The Chincha Islands--Tiahuanuco--Carved gateway--The

Island of Titicaca--Chulpas--Aboriginal Cuzco--Temple of the Sun--The Fortress--General remarks.


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